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Reflective writing: Schön

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“Schön identifies that the role of reflection-on-action is not only one of learning and informing action, but also the building of theory”

Moon, Reflection in learning & professional development

The Schön Reflective Model

Schön’s (1991) Reflection in action/Reflection on action provides an additional element by making a distinction between reflection during the event and reflection after the event.  It may be helpful to take account of this distinction during your own reflective practice.

This is particularly useful in practical situations, such as when teaching or nursing, where you may need to think on your feet and try new things when something is not going as you would expect. Using Schön’s framework allows you to capture that aspect of reflective practice.


Reflection IN action (as it happens)
	The experience itself
	Thinking about it during the event
	Deciding how to act at the time
	Acting immediately
Reflection ON action (afterwards)
	Reflection on something that has happened
	What you would do differently if it happened again?
	New information gained and/or theoretical perspectives studied that inform experience and help process feelings and actions


Schön: This model has the strength of considering reflection in action (during an event/experience) with those that happen in hindsight (after the event).