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Reflective writing: Rolfe

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“A framework ... can help you draw out the learning points from an experience by using a systematic approach”

Williams et al., Reflective Writing

Rolfe et al.'s Reflective Model

Rolfe et al's (2001) framework focuses on three questions:

  • What?
  • So what?
  • Now what?

By responding to each of these questions you are able to outline an experience, relate the experience to wider knowledge and identify implications for your practice. This is a popular framework for nurses. These questions can help you structure your writing:

What... did I learn? was I trying to achieve? actions did I take? was good/bad about the experience? feelings did it evoke in others? So what ...does it tell me/teach me/imply about my learning/attitudes/methods? could I have done to improve it? is my new understanding of the situation? Now what... do I need to do to make things better/improve in the future? might be the consequences of changing something?

What? So what? Now what?


Rolfe et al: This model focuses on three questions: What? So what? Now what? and works very well for reflecting on a specific event.