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The Open Access movement dates back to the early '00s, although discipline-specific initiatives began earlier. One of the first formal declarations of the movement's principles was the Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), defining "world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds" as a public good.
The two most commonly-used mechanisms for achieving open access are often called the ‘gold’ and ‘green’ routes:
Gold – publishing your output on a platform which provides immediate e-access for everyone, free of charge, with a licence which permits re-use. Publishers can recoup their costs through a number of mechanisms, including through payments from authors (known as article processing charges, or APCs), or through advertising, donations or other subsidies. Some publishers operate a 'hybrid' model, with open and paywalled articles on the same platform.
Green – providing open access to the author's final manuscript or published output in a searchable archive, commonly known as a repository, maintained by the author's institution or a scholarly society/professional body. The publisher may impose an embargo on open access to the file, normally in a range of 6 to 24 months.
See the video below for a visual representation of Gold and Green publishing routes:
Open Access to Research Data
An increasing number of publishers require authors to make the data which underlies their papers openly available, to maximise the applicability of their research findings.
The international open access advocate CHORUS has created a directory of publisher policies on data availability:
Under the terms of the policy, authors are responsible for depositing their research outputs in Worktribe, and the University takes responsibility for making these discoverable with green open access, in compliance with publisher terms.