On this page:
“I did then what I knew how to do. Now that I know better, I do better.”
This page, adapted from the University of Hull's Knowledge Management Framework, aims to support people in several organisations, each with their own resources and processes.
Information and resources specific to the University of Hull have been removed. Links to SkillsGuides that cover core skills and practices, e.g. reading, note-taking, and referencing, are retained but please be aware they may include links to services and software available only to members of the University of Hull.
How to use the knowledge management framework
You can click on each of the questions below to see tips and suggestions. Where it is relevant, links to publicly available support is included. For example, many of the online resources produced by the University Library's Skills Team can be used by our partners.
You may find it useful to review Skills necessary for effective knowledge management first.
Key considerations for course design
Consider how students will know what is expected of them. What resources and support are available in your college to help them, and you?
1. Which information resources support the subject knowledge you plan to develop? Are they already available via the library or learning resource centre? Can they be made available?
Unfortunately, not all publishers make their resources available to education libraries, so it may not be possible to provide access to something you would like to use in teaching. Talk to your library team to understand what is possible.
2. Does your institution have a reading list policy, or reading strategy? If so, have you checked that the resources you want to use in your teaching are appropriate? Do they support decolonization of the curricula, and include diverse voices and experiences?
You can find information about decolonization at Diversified collections You may not be able to use the resources listed towards the end of the page as they are licensed only to members of the University of Hull, but they may help inform your thinking.
Some of the University Library Skills Team's online SkillsGuides may be useful. For example, students just starting their course may benefit from the Essay writing video workshop.
Prior to joining your institution, many students will not have encountered research and journals databases and may not understand what they are, or how and why to use them. They will not necessarily understand the differences between information formats, and the roles in knowledge creation and sharing. This also affects their reading.
Videos to support Finding quality journal articles are available via the Video workshops page.
As student progress through your programme, they may need to conduct Literature reviews or systematic reviews.
Whatever level of study your students are undertaking, will you provide opportunities within the module for your students to develop these skills, and if so, how?
The SkillsGuide introducing students to Reading at University. is a helpful starting point.
6. How will students develop their ability to source, identify and critically assess appropriate information?
How will they gain experience of asking:
- Does the source offer the right type and level of information for the work you are undertaking?
- How reliable and authoritative are the books, articles, etc. that you have found?
- Are they relevant to and useful for the work you are doing?
Support for Critical writing is available as a SkillsGuide, and video workshop.
7. How will you introduce the principles of ethical information use? Which tools will help your students with this?
Students also need to be competent and confident with copyright and licensing issues, and be safe and secure online.
What opportunities will they have within your module to practice these skills and behaviours?
Useful SkillsGuides include Digital student for copyright, licensing, and online safety and security, and Referencing your work.
Your students may find it useful to read the pages on Getting started, and and Using sources in writing on the Referencing your work SkillsGuide
Do the assessment marking criteria include the loss or gain of marks for referencing? If so, is this clear to your students so that they can understand the importance of this practice, and how developing it can help them gain a better overall mark?
Does your institution provide access to referencing software, also known as bibliographic software, to help your students manage their references and create bibliographies? If so, once they have understood the basic principles, you may also wish to introduce them to such tools. Examples of licensed software include EndNote and RefWorks. There are also free packages available on the internet, e.g. Mendeley and Zotero.
9. How will students recognise they are developing their knowledge and associated knowledge management skills?
You may wish to refer to the Assessment and feedback section of the University's Inclusive Education Framework.
If you have set innovative assessments, how will you assess them? Is there an established institutional or departmental rubric you can use? If not, is there external good practice, including within the University, that you can adopt or adapt?
You may wish to refer to the Assessment and feedback section of the University's Inclusive Education Framework.
Key considerations for studying and researching
Make sure you know about the range of resources and support at your college, and how you can access them in a timely way to ensure your success.
1. Course readings are a guide to the knowledge you need to develop, and the information resources that will help you to do this. Do you know how and where to find them?
2. Your reading list may divide the resources into categories based on how important they are, e.g. Core title, or Background reading. Why is this, and how might it help you?
For example, at the University of Hull there are three reading priorities: Essential; Recommended; Background. If you are interested, you can see the definitions here.
The more extensively you read and critically engage with the range of resources on your reading list, the richer your disciplinary knowledge will become, and the stronger your arguments within your assessments.
3. Even if you are given a reading list, why do you need to look in other places to find all the readings you need to be successful? How do your teaching staff help to guide your through the readings and research?
For many of your assessments, you will also need to search for additional material. As a general rule, the further into your studying or research you are the more information you will need to find for yourself.
First, decide what type and level of information you need. Is the subject new to you? If so, you may need a general introduction or overview and this is most likely to be found in books or eBooks.
For current research, and in-depth analysis, journal articles are essential and can be found by searching a database. Your institution’s Library catalogue is the best place to start your search. For a quick guide to what databases are, read our blog post Using databases but remember you may not be able to use the databases that are mentioned at the end of the post.
The wider and deeper your exploration of your subject the easier it becomes to see the bigger picture, decide on a position, and argue your point. These practices are as important in the workplace as they are in education.
It takes time and practice to become proficient in using tools such as databases, referencing and Notetaking software, or to become a good time manager .
This can seem like an additional burden on top of learning about your discipline. However, it is a good investment that will save you time and effort overall as well as contributing to ethical information management practices.
5. Why do different approaches to reading different kinds of information enrich your studies, and save time and effort?
You should approach different information sources in different ways to get the most from your reading. For example, a journal article is easier to comprehend if it is read in four stages as described in Reading journal articles. At first, this may seem like more work than reading an article straight through once. However, with practice, you will gain greater understanding, and save time overall.
See the Reading at university guide for more strategies and tips. If you are new to university, you may find the section on What to read (reading selectively) a helpful starting point.
6. How will you access support to develop your skills to source, identify and critically assess information?
This does not mean you are alone! Your institution will provide support and guidance, so just ask for help when you need it. Teaching staff can help with academic issues, but you may also have support services such as libraries, IT, student services, welfare and more to help you navigate through your course.
You can also use most of the self-paced online SkillsGuides created by the University Library’s Skills Team. If you are not sure where to start, try typing the topic you are interested in into the Search box at the top right of the SkillsGuide page.
Several of the guides are linked from sections of this page. Remember, you will not be able to access certain resources and software that are licensed only for use by members of the University.
Depending on the nature of your studying or research there may be other issues you need to consider. Your teacher or supervisor will inform you about these.
The Academic integrity guide covers the key areas, and links to external sources.
You should also make yourself familiar with your institution’s policies in areas such as the acceptable use of IT equipment, and working online.
Developing good practices in all these areas while you are studying will improve your assessment outcomes, and ensure you have the right skills for your future employment.
8. Why do you need to reference your sources? What tools can help you to reference your work efficiently?
You may find it useful to read the pages on Getting started, and and Using sources in writing on the Referencing your work SkillsGuide
Check the marking criteria for your assessments. Can you gain or lose marks for your referencing? If so, doing them correctly can be an easy way to gain a better overall mark.
Your institution may provide referencing, or bibliographic software, such as EndNote or RefWorks, to help you manage your references. There are also free packages available on the internet, e.g. Mendeley and Zotero. Learning how to use such tools can help make referencing, and creating bibliographies, quicker and easier.
9. Why is it useful to keep a reflective journal about the development of your knowledge management?
If you are new to thinking and writing reflectively, visit the Reflective writing SkillsGuide for more information and tips.
How can you gain and lose marks? For example, if a proportion of marks is for the range of sources used, and the accurate referencing of them, what do you need to do to gain as many marks as possible? Do you have the skills needed to be successful, and if not, what do you need to practice?
What feedback did you receive for previous assessments? If it identified areas for further development have you been practicing so that you get an improved mark in your next assessment?