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Research output metrics: Google Scholar

A guide to bibliometrics and other ways to measure the impact of published research

Access to Google Scholar

Google Scholar includes scholarly articles from a wide variety of sources in all fields of research, all languages, all countries, and over all time periods. Records are crawled from publisher websites, institutional repositories and academics' own web pages. Scholar metrics "summarize recent citations to many publications".

Google Scholar citation counts are very likely to be different to the metrics published in proprietary databases like Web of Science and Scopus, because they are unmoderated and may not distinguish between different versions of the same paper (for instance the published article and the accepted manuscript in a repository).

Publish Or Perish

It is not possible to rank records by citation score in Google Scholar.  The free Publish Or Perish software can be used to interrogate Google Scholar search results, to identify: 

  • Total number of papers and total number of citations
  • Average citations per paper, citations per author, papers per author, and citations per year
  • Hirsch's h-index and related parameters
  • Egghe's g-index
  • The contemporary h-index
  • Three variations of individual h-indices
  • The average annual increase in the individual h-index
  • The age-weighted citation rate
  • An analysis of the number of authors per paper.
Publish Or Perish was created by Professor Anne-Wil Harzing at the University of Melbourne. It can be installed on Windows or MacOS without administrator rights:


See also Professor Harzing's Slideshare:  Citation Analysis, from Publication to Impact (2011).